Arriving at
・ Frame Chart of 12 Frames Punch
・ Execution Phase
・ Active Phase
・ Recovery Phase
・ Total Duration
・ Advanced Knowledge of Execution Phase



 This chapter follows the style of 'VFDC Wiki',[1] with some revisions which shall add important principles.




2・1 Frame Chart of 12 Frames Punch
 It is believed that ‘general properties of attacks’ had been established even in Virtua Fighter 1 (since 1993). The motion of any attacks must transition through 3 phases from start to end (Execution, Active and Recovery Phase). Each of 3 phases is measured in frames. The frame is the smallest unit of graphics display. In Virtua Fighter 5 Final Showdown, a frame is displayed for 1/60 of one second, so frames are used as units of time for move executions and recovery. The simplest example that demonstrates ‘general properties of attacks’ would be 12 frames punch P[2] (Diagram 21).

Diagram 2-1
 Diagram 21*
*Note that Diagram 21 above is applicable only when: 1) attacks whiff the opponent (section 2・4) and 2) you are not at recovery (section 2・6).




2・2 Execution Phase 
 The punch initiated by pressing P requires 12 frames (from the start until the first frame hit detection) for full arm extension (Figure 21). This time, 12 frames in this case, is called as Execution Phase (Section 2・6 considers in more depth the point that emerged from the discussions of Execution Phase).

Diagram 2-1-2


 Figure 21



2・3 Active Phase 
 When a punch has fully extended, hit detection usually lasts for a small amount of frames, typically 1 or 2. These frames are commonly known as Active Phase. Diagram 21 shows 2 active frames. You will see the ‘effective utilization of Active Phase’ in a later chapter.[3]

Diagram 2-1-3



2・4 Recovery Phase 
 After the Active Phase, the punching arm continues to retract until the period of ceasing entire attack (Figure 22). This final phase is known as Recovery Phase. Diagram 21 above shows 14 frames of recovery. When the Recovery Phase ends, you are free to move again.

Diagram 2-1-4


 Figure 22


 Notice that the amount of the Recovery Phase mentioned above is applicable only when attacks whiff the opponent.

In general, increase or decrease of the amount would be observed if the attack hits or is blocked.[4]


 For example, Recovery Phase of Lion's Banchu 6P is 21 frames, but it would be prolonged to 24 frames by hitting the opponent (Figure 23). In contrast, Kage's Surigeri 2K has 33 frames of recovery, but it would dramatically decrease to 24 frames by hitting the opponent (Figure 24).*


 Figure 23 (extension)  from 21 F to 24 F



 Figure 24 (reduction)  from 33 F to 24 F


*Note that it is unnecessary to take the influence due to a difference in hit effect, i.e. Normal or Counter Hit.[5]

 This property will be a definite factor in making our decision (in chapter 28).[6]




2・5 Total Duration
 Total Duration means the length of the entire attack: 

Diagram 2-1-5

Total = Execution + Active + Recovery − 1.

 The knowledge of Total Duration of opponent's attacks is one of essential way to be sure of the amount of advantage[7] if you successfully evade at a certain disadvantage (chapter 31).[8]




2・6 Advanced Knowledge of Execution Phase
 As shown in Diagram 21, if you are not at recovery, the execution of punch will be 1 frame behind pressing P. Similarly, if you enter P+G (press P and G together at the same frame), High Throw (chapter 101)[9] will turned up 1 frame later. An extremely rare example wherein P+K+G executes immediately, is particularly worthy of attention. This 1 frame would prove a great boon if you want to use 12 frames punch P+K+G when you are free to move. You are referred to ‘VF5FSレタスメモ (Ed., Lettuce)’  for a much more detailed analysis.[10]



VFDC Forums
VF5FS: P+K+G alternative input: ttp://virtuafighter.com/threads/vf5fs-p-k-g-alternative-input.15700
Frame Data: Hitting on Different Active Frames: ttp://virtuafighter.com/threads/frame-data-hitting-on-different-active-frames.15628/

References
[1] VFDC, Wiki, Attacks: ttp://virtuafighter.com/wiki/attacks/
[2] VF Moves Project: ttp://vfmoves.blogspot.jp/2012/11/akira-chusui_21.html
[3] Strategy based on Fall Recovery
[4] VF5FSレタスメモ: ttp://lettuce1789.blog133.fc2.com/blog-entry-668.html
[5] VF5FSレタスメモ: ttp://lettuce1789.blog133.fc2.com/blog-entry-988.html
[6] Forced Choice after Wall Hit
[7] Advantage and Disadvantage
[8] General Properties of Defensive Move
[9] General Properties of Throws 1
[10] VF5FSレタスメモ: ttp://lettuce1789.blog133.fc2.com/blog-entry-23.html

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